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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education  
  Chinese Journal of Chemical Education--2024, 45 (12)   Published: 18 June 2024
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 0-0.
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 104-104.
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Chemistry-Life-Society

“All-Around Champion” in Material World:Structure,Properties, Preparation and Application of Si3N4

SONG Shu-Rui, LI Xian-Shan, LIU Yu-Rong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 1-9. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023080194
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This paper systematically introduces the structure, properties, main preparation and main application fields of silicon nitride, which is the “all-round champion” in the material world. It is helpful for teachers and students to deeply understand teaching materials, expand their subject horizons and enrich chemistry learning resources.
Theory Teaching

Exploration of “Multiple Solutions for One Scientific Question” to Deeply Understand the Concepts and Theories in Structural Chemistry

LI Hai-Bei, ZHOU Mei-Juan, QI Ming-Ying, LI Shi-Qi, SU Jia-Ao, QIAO Li-Na
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 10-16. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100178
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During the study of structural chemistry, most students cannot use the knowledge flexibly to explain the issues, especially cannot distinguish the concepts of models, hypotheses and theories. We propose to design a simple scientific issue that can be solved independently by students one month before the end of the semester. The students have to solve it using as many as the methods referred in structural chemistry. Through this way of “multiple solutions for one question”, it not only enables students to form a knowledge network for important theories and principles in structural chemistry, but also stimulates students to explore, compare and analyze different models, hypotheses and theories, expanding the depth and breadth of their thinking.
Experiment Teaching

Comprehensive Research on Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Saponification Reaction of Ethyl Acetate

CHEN Xiao-Juan, ZHANG Jian-Hui, SENG Yong, CHEN Liu-Ping
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 17-24. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100079
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The experiment device for ethyl acetate saponification reaction is designed,and the reaction rate constants and the reaction heat effect under the isothermal and adiabatic conditions are measured respectively by conductivity and calorimetric method,aiming to reveal the influence of reaction heat effect on the measurement of rate constants.It is proved that reliable,precise rate constants and activation energy can be obtained through kinetic experiments under current thermostatical condition.The molar reaction enthalpy of ethyl acetate saponification determined by reaction heat effect experiments indicates the saponification reaction is exothermic,while the thermodynamic analysis results show that the hydrolyzation of ethyl acetate under the standard condition or in pure water is slightly endothermic.This work can guide students to think deeply about basic kinetic experiments and to analyze further with reaction thermodynamics,which can effectively expand students’ thinking,promote improvement of experimental teaching effect of the reaction kinetic subject,and enhance students’ comprehensive research ability.

Project-Based Teaching of Analytical Chemistry Experiment in the Context of “Intangible Cultural Heritage”: Brewing, Analysis and Evaluation of Traditional Rice Vinegar

SUN Huan, WANG Li, WANG Su-Qin, JIANG Jian-Wen, LI Hong-Bo
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 25-35. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100089
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The vinegar brewing technology,a national intangible cultural heritage,is used to build a teaching situation, so that students can experience the brewing of vinegar, determine the total acid content in self-brewed rice vinegar through acid-base titration, anduse modern sensing technology to improve the traditional titration experimental device to obtain the titration curve. And then the teachersguide students to design the conductivity titration experimental scheme, and finally evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of self-brewed rice vinegar from the sensory level such as color and flavor, and learn the method of qualitative analysis of compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology.

Comprehensive Experiment Design: Preparation of Biomass Charcoal from Wheat Straw and Its Performance Evaluation of Zinc-Air Battery

MENG Tao, TANG Ran-Xiao, CAO Min-Hua, LI Hui-Feng
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 36-43. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100095
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Based on the focus on the concept of green sustainable development, the project of “carbon neutrality” and “carbon peak”, and the education and teaching reform, herein, a comprehensive experiment that the controlled preparation of biomass charcoal and its Zn-air battery was designed to highlight the important role of scientific research in improving the quality of undergraduate teaching. In this experiment, biomass charcoal with adjustable pore structure and oxygen-containing functional group was prepared from agricultural waste biomass-wheat straw by carbonization and activation methods, and then employed as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction and zinc-air battery. Conversion of the research hotspot into the chemical comprehensive experiment is novel and also suitable for undergraduate teaching, which further promotes the vertical integration of multi-subject contents and realizes the cross-integration between professional knowledge and scientific research hotspot fields, and finally makes up for the shortcomings of traditional chemical experimental discipline barriers. Additionally, the combination of inquiry learning and comprehensive experiment operation is favor for improving students’ comprehensive experiment skills and practical innovation ability.

Creative Thinking Cultivation Experiment: Reductive Cross-Coupling of Indoles with Ketones in Water via Dearomatization-Rearomatization Strategy

GUO Jia-Cong, YANG Yang, MA Ming-Yuan, DUAN Dai-Ping, ZENG Hui-Ying
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 44-49. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023090204
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Traditional experimental teaching aimed at cultivating students’ “hands-on” ability and consolidating students’ “three basics” (basic theory, basic knowledge and basic skills). However, in the face of the social demand for innovative talents, schools are required to set up innovative experiments for improving to creative thinking and ability training. The purpose is to cultivate students’ abilities and habits of both “hands-on” and “minds-on”. This new experiment breaks the traditional view that the reaction between indole and ketone usually occurs at the C-3 position in the theoretical teaching, and successfully realizes the selective change of reaction site via “dearomatization-rearomatization” strategy, achieving reductive N-alkylation of indole. In this experiment, indole and cyclopentanone were used as starting materials, formic acid as the hydrogen source, and Pd(OH)2/C as the catalyst to synthesis of N-alkylation indole under aqueous phase conditions. This experiment combines the original knowledge in books with innovative reaction strategies, which can improve students’ ability to apply their knowledge flexibly and their interests in research during the experimental teaching process, and cultivate students’ reverse thinking and innovative ability.

New Popular Science Design of Combustion Heat Experiment: Determination of Calorific Value of Food by Calorimetry

ZHANG Lai-Ying, YUAN Ru-Ming, HONG Yao-Qing, SHI Ya-Xi, CHEN Yue, XU Xiao-Ming
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 50-54. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100092
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Over the past few decades, there has been a significant change in the nutritional intake structure of residents in China, accompanied by a growing concern for the nutritional value of food. This paper introduces a popular science experiment that uses calorimetry to determine the caloric value of food. With simple operations and reliable data from calorimeters, the caloric values of common foods, such as grains and sugars, are measured. The design of the experiment not only helps the public understand the concept of caloric value but also applies it to daily life, addressing popular concerns. The purpose of this experiment is to excite public interest in chemistry, demonstrate its close connection to life, and through experimental education, deepen public understanding of the relationship between food and energy, as well as the importance of chemistry in solving everyday problems.
Teacher Education

Modular Setting of Education Majors and “Micro Majors” Curriculum: Micro Chemistry Education

YIN Shi-Dong, SANG An-Qi
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 55-60. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100101
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The education (undergraduate) major+“micro major” talent training model is proposed to meet the needs of the new era society for composite, innovative and applied talents, and to assist in the transformation and upgrading of the education major. This study takes the micro chemistry education major as an example to analyze the basic educational concept of undergraduate education major+“micro major”, and starts from the talent cultivation goals of education “micro major” chemistry education major. It explores the rationalization of course module settings, proposes corresponding talent cultivation course systems and training plans to support talent cultivation goals.
Vocational Education

Constructing Ideological and Political Curriculum System of Pharmaceutical Analysis in Higher Vocational Education Based on Yunnan Regional Characteristics

ZHANG Pei-Pei, HU Ling, MIU Ying-Hua, LI Rong, WANG Yan-Fang, ZHANG Jiao-Hua, NIE Yuan-Hui
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 61-68. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023080016
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Based on the advantages of natural medicine resources in Yunnan, with chemical drugs as the main and natural drugs as the supplement, radiating to cosmetics and food testing, the ideological and political system of pharmaceutical analysis was constructed with ideological and political elements, integration channels and value system as the main line. To excavate the ideological and political elements in the theory and practical training courses of pharmaceutical analysis, resources library of ideological and political elements was built, mainly composed of related knowledge points, materials, values and integration methods of ideological and political curriculum. To integrate ideological and political elements into the whole system of teaching objectives, teaching methods and strategies, teaching evaluation, forming an ideological and political teaching model that integrates theory and practical training, online and offline, classroom and extracurricular, teaching and competition, the main ideological and political value system of “consciousness”→“feelings”→“practice” of pharmacy students in higher vocational colleges was constructed. The innovative teaching mode of “feeling→evaluation→teaching→learning→practice→production” was established, andtheory and practice were deeply integrated. According to the basic difference of students as subject, the pyramid-type differential teaching was realized, which is conducive to the accurate positioning of students' personal value.

Construction of Modern Apprenticeship Curriculum System for Higher Vocational Pharmacy Majors Based on OBE Concept

LI Yu-Ting, HUANG Shi-Fang, JIANG Yuan, WANG Wen-Yuan
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 69-75. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023110143
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This article takes the pharmacy majoras an example to analyze the problems in the construction of modern apprenticeship courses for vocational pharmacy majors. Guided by the OBE concept, we repositioned and updated the curriculum concept, curriculum objectives, curriculum structure, curriculum content,curriculum teaching and curriculum evaluation,and constructed a curriculum system that conforms to modern apprenticeship teachingtocultivate high-quality technical and skilled talents who are aligned with drug production, drug quality inspection, and drug sales job groups.
Chemical Education for Non-Chemistry Major

Application of Computational Optical Rotation Dispersion in the Teaching Process of Determining the Absolute Configurations of Complex Natural Products

LIN Bin, HAO Jin-Le, CHEN Kai, YU Zhi-Wei
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 76-81. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100115
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The use of quantum chemical methods to calculate the optical rotation dispersion of chiral organic molecules and compare them with experimental data has been widely used in the determination of the absolute configurations of complex natural products. Taking three kinds of natural compounds with an increasing complexity as examples, we showed the applications of quantum chemical calculations in the teaching of optical rotation dispersion. By calculating the optical rotation dispersion and analyzing the molecular structures, it helps students have a more intuitive understanding of optical isomers and their optical properties, which is instructive to students’ understanding of the nature of optical rotation dispersion, and effectively improves students’ interest and enthusiasm. Meanwhile, it allows students to understand the cutting-edge methods of chemical research, broaden students’ horizons, and cultivate students’ ability to solve practical problems.

Comprehensive Innovative Experiment Design Based on Integration of Science and Education: Preparation and Properties of Functional Dendritic Peptide Phototherapy System

CHEN Si, ZHOU Yu-Tian, MA Xiao-Yu, WANG Wen-Song, LIU Fan, YAN Guo-Ping, FAN Jin-Xuan
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 82-89. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2024010052
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Based on the charactristics of the course, a comprehensive innovative experiment, preparation and properities of functional dendritic peptide phototherapy system, was desinged. The experiment aimsto solve the defects such as limited water solubility, poor stability, rapid metabolism and indiscriminate toxicity of photosensitizer IR780. The phototherapy system RI was constructed by encapsulating photosensitizer IR780 in the hydrophobic cavity of amphiphilic functional branched peptide by hydrophilic and hydrophobic effect. The performance of phototherapy system RI was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, particle size and Zeta potentiometer, transmission electron microscopy, photothermal imager and cell experiments, and the experimental skills of students were strengthened in the specific implementation process of the experiment.
Postgraduate Education

Teaching Exploration and Practice of Polymer Processing and Blending Theory for Graduate Students

WANG Yang, BAI Hui-Yu, MA Pi-Ming, DONG Wei-Fu
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 90-94. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023120110
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Polymer processing and blending theory is a graduate degree course in the field of polymer materials, which emphasizes both theory and practice, and is of great significance for cultivating graduate students’ research and innovation abilities. This article takes this course as a starting point and explores teaching reform from three dimensions: professional knowledge structure, ability enhancement, and value shaping. It integrates problem-based learning methods, case analysis, and a joint training model of industry university research and application into the course teaching, and combines it with ideological and political education in the course, in order to enhance the professional knowledge, engineering practice ability and scientific research innovation awareness of graduate. Fully stimulate graduate students’ patriotism and sense of mission, adhere to the “Four Orientations”, and actively serve national strategy and regional development.
Information Technology and Chemistry

Lithium-Ion Battery Performance Prediction Software Development and Its Application in Electrochemistry Teaching

LIAN Cheng, JIAO Mei-Yuan, HUANG Kai, CHEN Zhi-Yun, XU Shou-Hong, LIU Hong-Lai
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 95-104. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100180
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The structure of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs)and the relationship between energy density and power density are abstract knowledge points in electrochemistry teaching.The Forecast-Ragone software was developed by using Matlab,which can relate the experimental results in electrode to the performance data in actual full-cell.Developed software can show the composition of LIBs and output the influencing factors of battery performance by simple operation.Applying developed software in teaching can introduce scientific research results into the classroom,and visualize the relevant teaching content.

Application of Mobile APP in Teaching and Learning of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Graduate Students

YIN Tian-Peng, ZHANG Xiao-Qiong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 105-111. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023120065
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This paper introduces the application of mobile Apps such as iSpartan, Chemical Detectives, Orange NMR in teaching and learning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) for graduate students, based on scientific research and teaching practice. The introduction of APP-assisted teaching in the classroom can increase the intuitive and perceptual understanding of NMR for graduate students and improve the teaching effect. Guide graduate students to use APP to carry out mobile learning after class makes learning more attractive and proactive, and also conducive to the development of scientific research practice. NMR-related APPs are worth promoting to teachers and students of chemistry and pharmacy.
Discussion and Thinking of Questions

Exploration of the Blue Green Phenomenon of Eriochrome Black T in Coordination Titration

HU Ya-Lan, LIU Su-Mei, CHEN Huai-Xia
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 112-116. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2024010060
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The blue-green phenomenon in the coordination titration using eriochrome black T (EBT) as the indicator was investigated. The pH measurement results indicated that the ammonia buffer solution maintained the stability of the solution acidity during the titration process. The slight change of pH did not cause the solution to appear blue-green. The absorption spectrum analysis showed that excessive ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) affected the absorption spectrum of EBT, reduced the absorption of EBT at yellow light 575 nm and enhanced the absorption at red light 622 nm and 664 nm. Thus, blue-green with complementary red light appeared. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that excessive EDTA prolonged the retention time of EBT, which shown that EDTA reduced the polarity of EBT. Methanol did not alter the different colors of EBT. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride causes different colors of EBT to appear blue-green. It can be inferred that in ammonia buffer solution, static electricity occurred between the positively charged group ≡NH+in EDTA and the negatively charged group —SO-3 or —O- in EBT, and EBT phenolic hydroxyl group may form hydrogen bonds withNor —COO- of EDTA, resulting to the changes of absorption spectrum and HPLC retention of EBT. As a result, the electrostatic and hydrogen bonds between EDTA and EBT may be the nature of blue-green phenomenon.
History of Chemistry and Chemical History Education

Nano-Confined Catalysis:From Concept to Practical Application

LI Yan-Li, YUAN Zhen-Dong, WANG Fei-Fei
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 117-123. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023020199
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According to the research on the development history of the concept of nano-confined catalysis, it can be seen that in 2006, Xinhe Bao and his team first discovered the phenomenon of narrow confinement catalysis in CNTs and proposed the concept of CNT-confined. In 2010, the generalized confinement catalysis phenomenon called interfacial confinement was discovered. Thus, the concept of “nano-confined catalysis” was formally formed. Guided by this concept, the team prepared high-performance selective catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation. Realized methane anaerobic activation direct ethylene production and high-value chemicals. A new catalytic system of OX-ZEO was initiated to produce low carbon olefin directly from syngas with high selectivity. The development history of the concept of nano-confinement catalysis shows the innovative spirit of Chinese scientists bravely climbing the peak and daring to be the first, and also provides new perspectives and ideas for the basic theoretical research of catalysis.

Course of History of Science Promotes the Cultivation of Innovative Talents: History of the Development of Materials Science

LIU Xiao-Li, XU Xing-Yan, SHI Jian-Bing, ZHONG Hai-Zheng, YE Lin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (12): 124-129. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023110060
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The cultivation of innovative talents is a vital subject for educational worker, and education of history of science can play an important role in stimulating innovative motivation and cultivating innovative spirit. However, the education of history of science in universities is unsatisfactory in our nation currently due to the lack of full-time teachers, the reduction of class hours, and the like. This study starts a course of history of science, “The Development of Materials Science-the multidisciplinary fusion and innovation”, for the undergraduates in Beijing Institute of Technology to aim on the cultivation of innovative talents. A novel educational model that the educational team are comprised by the researchers in various frontiers of materials science and the history of sciences are described separately according to the specie of materials is further explored, which has a reference significance for other scientific and technological universities with the lack of full-time teachers in history of science. Questionnaire survey results after the course show the course outcomes are beneficial for cultivating innovative motivation and spirit and promoting the students to grow into innovative talents in the future.
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