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ISSN 1003-3807
CN 10-1515/O6
  2021, 42(4) Published: 18 February 2021

Column:

Vocational Education
Curriculum-Teaching Materials-Assessment
Theory Teaching
Experiment Teaching
Information Technology and Chemistry
Domestic and Overseas Trends
Chemistry-Life-Society
Discussion and Thinking of Questions
History of Chemistry and Chemical History Education
Investigation Report
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 0
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 61
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 Chemistry-Life-Society
Research Progress of Phosphocholine Chloride Calcium Salt and Its Derivatives
SUN Chen-Ming, MIAO Zhi-Wei
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 1-7
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020040049
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Research Progress of Phosphocholine Chloride Calcium Salt and Its Derivatives
This review focuses on the synthesis methods and application status of phosphoch...
This review focuses on the synthesis methods and application status of phosphocholine chloride and its derivatives and provides references for further expanding the application scope of phosphocholine chloride and its derivatives.

Heterogeneous Catalysis for Direct Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol with Hydrogen Peroxide
BAO He-Bin, HU Zhi-De
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 8-16
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020020160
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Heterogeneous Catalysis for Direct Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol with Hydrogen Peroxide
As a green and clean oxidant, it is very attractive to oxidize benzene with hydr...
As a green and clean oxidant, it is very attractive to oxidize benzene with hydrogen peroxide to obtain phenol. In this paper, different kinds of heterogeneous catalysts, such as molecular sieves, carbon-based materials, metal oxides and metal organic frameworks for the oxidation of benzene to phenol with hydrogen peroxide are reviewed. The preparation routes, reaction mechanisms and catalytic performances are mainly discussed. It can provide a useful perspective for rational design of new heterogeneous catalysis.

Discussion on the Allotropes of Nonmetallic Element Nitrogen
WEI Ling-Ling, LI Shu-Ni, MA Yi, ZHAI Quan-Guo, GAO Sheng-Li, GAO Ling-Xiang
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 17-30
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020050142
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Discussion on the Allotropes of Nonmetallic Element Nitrogen
In this paper, the allotropes of nitrogen are summarized and discussed according...
In this paper, the allotropes of nitrogen are summarized and discussed according to the research progress on total-nitrogen substances. The allotropes of nitrogen are classified into four different kinds: molecular nitrogen, polymeric nitrogen, metal nitrogen and cluster nitrogen. The composition, structsure, existence, synthesis and application of various allotropes are discussed comprehensively. Thus, this paper can provide important materials for the teaching and research on element nitrogen.

 Curriculum-Teaching Materials-Assessment
Synergistic Teaching Mode of Polymer Chemistry Theoretical and Experimental Courses
WANG Ming-Cun, WANG Hong-Shan, CHEN Yi-Chi, ZHU Ying
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 31-35
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020030150
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Using an example of “emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate”, a ne...
Using an example of “emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate”, a new teaching mode was researched to synergistically combine polymer chemistry theoretical and experimental courses. Synergistic teaching mode will overcome some drawbacks of conventional teaching in which theoretical teaching and experimental teaching are isolated as individual course, by systematical arrangement of theoretical, experimental and application teaching as a whole. The synergistical teaching mode includes the following contents: the teachers of polymer chemistry are teamed together, using one as principal teacher to teach in class of all the courses of polymer; experimental course can be placed differently at the pre-, mid- and post-stage of theoretical course, thus to meet the varying education goals for different students; compulsory content and extended content are arranged to help the top-level students to get improved education; for the assessment of polymer chemistry courses, a comprehensive balanced evaluation method is adopted by unifying theoretical course and experimental course. The teaching mode in this paper was found to resolve the problems of separate teaching and improve students' learning quality.

Online Teaching Based on Rain Classroom+WeChat-Enterprise+MOOC with Organic Chemistry as Example
JIA Li-Yan, JI Yan-Ming, LIANG Ya-Xuan, LIU Yi-Chen, LU Zhong-Lin, XING Guo-Wen
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 36-39
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020050042
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Online Teaching Based on Rain Classroom+WeChat-Enterprise+MOOC with Organic Chemistry as Example
This article mainly introduces the online teaching practice of organic chemistry...
This article mainly introduces the online teaching practice of organic chemistry based on the Rain Classroom, WeChat-Enterprise and the supplement of the simultaneous MOOC course. It also illustrated the “questioning and probing” teaching system of “student as the center, teacher as the guide” with teaching examples. The online live teaching also integrates the interactive mode of bullet screen, WeChat group and group homework, focusing on the interaction between students and students, students and teachers, as well as students and teaching resources. Furthermore, the course paid more attention on the student's learning process by building a multi-dimensional assessment system to improve students' initiative and participation.

Considerations on How to Guide Students to Make the Best of Physical Chemistry Online Learning
ZHANG Su-Ming, XING Shuang-Xi
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 40-45
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020040043
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Considerations on How to Guide Students to Make the Best of Physical Chemistry Online Learning
Taking the chapter of first law of thermodynamics in Physical Chemistry (I) as a...
Taking the chapter of first law of thermodynamics in Physical Chemistry (I) as an example, this paper first discusses how to perfectly tune the teaching and studying status from offline to online by using “Rain Classroom” and “Tencent Online Education” as teaching platforms, then focuses on how teachers can guide students to accomplish the online studying task satisfactorily by making due efforts in adaption and change.

 Theory Teaching
Application of the Balloons and Balloon-Ball-Stick Model Teaching of Chemical Structure Theory
CHEN Ning, DU Hong-Guang, XU Jia-Xi
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 46-50
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020030271
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Application of the Balloons and Balloon-Ball-Stick Model Teaching of Chemical Structure Theory
We described the application of balloons and balloon-ball-stick models in struct...
We described the application of balloons and balloon-ball-stick models in structure theoretical teaching. Balloons are excellent teaching tools in the learning of hybrid orbitals. Together with the ball-stick-models, they can help students understand conjugated molecules, comprehend conjugation and hyperconjugation effect, recognize molecular properties, grasp reaction mechanisms, and master molecular orbital theory. This experiential learning model is an excellent active learning method through involving students to operate the models by themselves. It not only greatly improves the students' interests in learning, but also increases their comprehending on the complicated and abstractive knowledge.

General Calculation Method on Complexometric Titration Error
SU Tie-Jun
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 51-55
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020040102
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General Calculation Method on Complexometric Titration Error
According to definition formula on titration error, the key to calculate titrati...
According to definition formula on titration error, the key to calculate titration error lies in volume ratio between titrant solution and analyte solution. In this paper, the general equation on volume ratio in complexometric titration was constructed and iteration strategy was proposed to solve the equation. The results of calculation examples showed the method is characterized of wide adaptability and high precision.

 Experiment Teaching
University Chemistry Comprehensive Experiment: Preparation and Structural Characterization of Potassium Ferrioxalate
DAI Xiao-Min, FENG Ling-Zhu, LI Jia-Xin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 56-61
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2019120172
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University Chemistry Comprehensive Experiment: Preparation and Structural Characterization of Potassium Ferrioxalate
In this comprehensive experiment, potassium ferrioxalate was prepared by ferric ...
In this comprehensive experiment, potassium ferrioxalate was prepared by ferric chloride and potassium oxalate as raw materials and its structure was characterized. The composition and ion charge of the complexes was measured. The electronic spectra and infrared spectra of the ligands and complexes were mainly studied. The magnetic distance, XRD crystal structure, and thermal stability of the complex were measured. The experimental results show that the composition of the complex is K3[Fe(C2O4)3]·3H2O with a yield of 90.0%. The value of the absorption peak of the electronic spectrum is in the range less than 350~400 nm, which is caused by the electronic transition from the ligand to the central ion. The infrared spectrum infers the presence of bidentate or chelated oxalate in the complex. The magnetic moment of the complex is 5.16 B.M.. The hybrid state of the central ion Fe3+ is sp3d2. And the complex is a high-spin outer-orbital complex with an octahedral structure. Through this experiment, students can understand the principles of complex preparation, composition determination and structural characterization, and be familiar with various modern testing techniques. It can stimulate students' interests in scientific research, and cultivate students” comprehensive experimental and innovative abilities.

Research-Based Comprehensive Chemistry Experiment: Investigation of the Host-Guest Interactions Between Benzo-21-Crown-7 and Secondary Dialkylammonium Salts
HE Tian, FAN Yi-Qi, YIN Shou-Chun
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 62-68
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020010058
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Research-Based Comprehensive Chemistry Experiment: Investigation of the Host-Guest Interactions Between Benzo-21-Crown-7 and Secondary Dialkylammonium Salts
The discovery of crown ethers opened up a new discipline-supramolecular chemistr...
The discovery of crown ethers opened up a new discipline-supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis and characterization of this kind of substances were introduced into a comprehensive chemistry experiment in our college. A typical crown ether compound, named benzo-21-crown-7 (B21C7), was first synthesized by etherification reaction, and a complex (referred to as pseudorotaxane) was then formed by the host-guest interactions of B21C7 with secondary dialkylammonium salts. Moreover, its complexation ability between B21C7 and secondary dialkylammonium salts was investigated via nuclear magnetic resonance titration. The implementation of this experiment can not only improve the basic experimental operation ability of students, consolidate the understanding of professional knowledge, and train the ability of large-scale instrument test and analysis of students, but also widen the scientific research vision of students and improve their awareness of exploration and innovation. Thus, this experiment was suggested to set up to senior undergraduates and junior postgraduate.

Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bismuth Molybdate Nanosheets
LI Ze-Sheng, HE Wei-Yue, WU Ze-Feng, HUANG Ze-Tao, CHENG Hui-Cheng, ZHOU Jian-Min
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 69-72
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2019120166
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Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bismuth Molybdate Nanosheets
The photocatalyst with high catalytic activity was prepared by hydrothermal trea...
The photocatalyst with high catalytic activity was prepared by hydrothermal treatment with bismuth nitrate and phosphomolybdic acid as raw materials. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The surface photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline was studied with xenon lamp as light source. This experiment involves hydrothermal synthesis, structural characterization of inorganic nanomaterials and photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. It combines the theoretical content, experimental methods and scientific research frontier of inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry and analytical chemistry, and it can comprehensively improve the comprehensive experimental skills and scientific research level of undergraduate students.

 Vocational Education
Virtual Simulation Training Effect in Secondary Vocational Chemistry Teaching Taking Methanol Production Process as Example
WU Xiao-Bing, PENG Qian
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 73-77
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020030039
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Virtual Simulation Training Effect in Secondary Vocational Chemistry Teaching Taking Methanol Production Process as Example
This paper introduces the virtual simulation training system into the teaching o...
This paper introduces the virtual simulation training system into the teaching of methanol production process, which is a compulsory course for the chemical engineering specialty in secondary vocational school, and probes into the effect of virtual simulation training system on the teaching of secondary vocational school. This study selects both parallel classes and experimental classes and designs both traditional and virtual simulation teaching schemes for comparison. The virtual simulation training system is used to build the virtual scene of methanol industry production and to simulate the production operation process, control, risk factor demonstration, etc., so that the learners can easily operate and practice the methanol production process in a non-toxic and harmless environment with everything clearly laid out in front of their eyes. The results show that the simulation virtual training system can effectively make up for the lack of training means, promote students' mastery of the knowledge principle and operation process, improve learning attitude, and effectively enhance their learning interests and sense of achievement,whichplaying a significant role in improving learning effect and quality.

 Information Technology and Chemistry
Application of Gaussian and Aspen Plus in Course Design of Chemical Engineering Principle
YANG Jin-Bei, YU Mei-Qiong, CHEN Wen-Tao
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 78-85
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020050027
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Application of Gaussian and Aspen Plus in Course Design of Chemical Engineering Principle
In the course design of chemical engineering principle, the scientific research ...
In the course design of chemical engineering principle, the scientific research project “dimethyl sulfide, methanol and water separation design project” entrusted by a pharmaceutical factory was transformed into a typical teaching case. Combined with modern computer-aided technology, the quantitative calculation software Gaussian and chemical simulation software Aspen Plus were introduced to carry out the design of the azeotrope separation by extractive distillation from the microscopic and macroscopic, respectively. Based on the density functional theory, it was confirmed that the existing component water could change the relative volatility of the binary azeotrope of dimethyl sulfide and methanol and eliminate the azeotrope via Gaussian software. Afterwards, the extractive distillation process for the azeotrope separation was further simulated and optimized using the Aspen Plus software. Finally, industrial design and equipment selection were carried out. The design of the above practical case creatively uses the existing components of the mixed liquid as the extractant, and realizes the separation of the azeotrope through the extractive distillation process, which makes up for the shortcomings of the product carrying trace third components in traditional extractive distillation. It greatly stimulates the students' interest in learning, enriches the teaching content of the course, and thoroughly explains the complex process of extractive distillation, which promotes the improvement of teaching quality and enhances the engineering design ability of students. The students participated in the National University Chemical Design Competition for many times and achieved excellent results.

 Investigation Report
Investigation of Basic Safety Knowledge on Chemistry Laboratory Among First-Year Undergraduates
WANG Xiao-Yan, REN Xiao-Hong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 86-89
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020040162
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Investigation of Basic Safety Knowledge on Chemistry Laboratory Among First-Year Undergraduates
In order to investigate the basic safety knowledge of chemical laboratory for fi...
In order to investigate the basic safety knowledge of chemical laboratory for first-year students, a questionair was conducted to explore the warning symbols, hazardous chemicals, waste and accident disposal among first-year undergraduates in the College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology. The results showed that 60.4% respondents confused the flammable pictogram with that of oxidizer, and the properties of hazardous chemicals and disposal of acid/base spill needed to be strengthened. Based on the results above, during the following safety education, the GHS pictogram and MSDS will be spreaded to the students to make up the deficiency specifically. And online resources will be also fully utilized to supplement the the deficiency in off-line safety education due to the limit of time and capacity.

 Discussion and Thinking of Questions
Applicability of Isotherm Model in Liquid-Liquid Extraction
GAO Jia-Jun, CAI Yuan, YIN Xia, JIANG Xing-Mao, LI Chun-Xi
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 90-95
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020020087
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Applicability of Isotherm Model in Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Distribution of equilibrium concentration of solute between two immiscible phase...
Distribution of equilibrium concentration of solute between two immiscible phases is a core issue of liquid-liquid extraction. For most of theoretical and experimental courses in chemistry or chemical engineering, the extraction systems that showed the linear distribution were selected as teaching examples. However, the systems showing the non-linear distribution rarely occurred in teaching. This was because the current model applied in the systems mentioned above was quite complex. In the teaching research, we found that the common isotherm model can well describe the non-linear distribution of many systems, and that the distribution coefficient can be expressed by determined functional relationship as well. Further, we also found that the model applicability of extraction systems highly related to interaction mechanism among solute, solvent and extractant thereof. Above all, applying the isotherm model in the liquid-liquid extraction can solve the complexity issue of the current model, expand the teaching contents, help students better understand the extraction mechanism, and train them in scientific thinking.

 Domestic and Overseas Trends
Literature Analysis on Critical Thinking in Chemistry in Journal of Chemical Education
HE Wei, LI Mao-Ke, HUANG Qian, WU Xiao-Chun
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 96-101
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020020097
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Literature Analysis on Critical Thinking in Chemistry in <em>Journal of Chemical Education</em>
Through the literature review of all the articles on the topic of critical think...
Through the literature review of all the articles on the topic of critical thinking (CT)published in the Journal of Chemical Education from 1987 to 2019, the literatures can be divided into five categories based on the content analysis results. The most representative literature is selected from each category as an example to provide a path for the development of critical thinking skills from the five dimensions of experimental process analysis, active learning teaching methods, curriculum planning, correcting textbook errors and analyzing network information. Finally, this paper summarizes the current research status and trends of critical thinking in international chemistry education.

Application of Toulmin's Argumentation Pattern in Science Education in Applied Undergraduate Colleges
WAN Yan-Jun, CAO Yan, JIAO Rui, MENG Cai-Yan
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 102-106
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020030216
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Application of Toulmin's Argumentation Pattern in Science Education in Applied Undergraduate Colleges
Through the design and implementation of teaching experiments at a liberal arts ...
Through the design and implementation of teaching experiments at a liberal arts college in the United States, this article explores the role of Toulmin's Argumentation Pattern (TAP) from a brand-new angle in helping students construct scientific explanations with their reasonings, as well as in improving students' understanding of concepts, so as to provide a useful reference for the reform of teaching methods in applied undergraduate colleges in China.

 History of Chemistry and Chemical History Education
Century of Macromolecule from Perspective of the Nobel Prize in Science
YAN Jing, GU Jun-Wei, GENG Wang-Chang, YAN Yi
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2021, 42 (4): 107-113
DOI: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2020020067
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Century of Macromolecule from Perspective of the Nobel Prize in Science
It has been a century since polymer science was established by H. Staudinger in ...
It has been a century since polymer science was established by H. Staudinger in 1920. Based on the previous Nobel prizes in polymer science and related fields, this paper reviews the establishment of the concept of polymer, polymer synthetic chemistry, polymer theory, functional polymer and other development milestones in polymer science, and analyzes the future development trends of polymer discipline.

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