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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education  
  Chinese Journal of Chemical Education--2023, 44 (18)   Published: 18 September 2023
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 0-0.
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 16-16.
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Chemistry-Life-Society

Synthesis of Polysubstituted Pyridine Derivatives and Their Applications in the Fields of Medicine and Pesticides

YAN Zi-Hong, LI Jin-Lan, ZHENG Yuan-Song, MIAO Zhi-Wei
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 1-16. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022010187
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Pyridine derivatives are widely used in research fields such as organic synthetic chemistry, materials chemistry, coordination chemistry, and drug research and development, and therefore arouse the research interests of chemists. This article reviews the recent research progress in the synthesis of polysubstituted pyridine derivatives and introduces the applications of these compounds in the fields of medicine and pesticides. It also provides reference for the synthesis and application research of polysubstituted pyridine derivatives.
Curriculum-Teaching Materials-Assessment

Design and Teaching Practice of Peer Assessment Learning Activity: Chrome-containing Waste Water Treatment

LIU Ping, HAN Li, CHEN Hong-Jin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 17-24. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022080161
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Peer assessment focuses on promoting the students’ knowledge construction and internalization in a strong interactive environment by the way of collaborative learning and self-reflection. A peer assessment learning activity based on the chrome-containing waste water treatment was designed and implemented in a college chemistry course. It is proved that the learning assignment and peer review rubric played the important roles to facilitate the implementation of the learning activity. The quantitative data analysis for the assignment scores and students’ revisions indicates that this learning activity obviously improved the overall students’ achievements as well as enhanced the students learning and participation. Peer assessment is proved a meaningful learning activity in science courses.

Teaching Strategies and Methods of Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry Course Under the Background of New Era

HUANG Yan, TIAN Zhen-Fen, WANG Lei, XU Zhi-Zhen, BAI He, YANG Yu-Xiang
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 25-29. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100153
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In the new era, information technology and intelligent technology are constantly integrating with university teaching. Based on this background and years of teaching experience, combined with course characteristics and students’ feedback, teaching strategies and methods were proposes, such as making multimedia courseware reasonably, transferring the teaching focus, combining teachers’ teaching and research, discussion teaching method and integrating ideological and political education. Teaching practice showed that these strategies and methods could help to mobilize students’ learning enthusiasm and initiative, improve classroom teaching effectiveness, stimulate students’ spirit of scientific research and innovation, and also help to lead students to establish a positive and correct career outlook, outlook on life and values.
Theory Teaching

Integrative Teaching Strategy of Carbonyl Compound Under the Concept of Three Changes: Positivation, Transmutation and Tautomerization

XING Guo-Wen, ZHANG Jing-Dong, LU Zhong-Lin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 30-36. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023030221
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The reactions of carbonyl compound are the essential and difficult parts of organic chemistry. Based on the five-dimensional teaching strategy of college organic chemistry, this paper had summarized and proposed an integrative teaching strategy of carbonyl compound under the concept of “three changes”, which were “positivation, transmutation and tautomerization”. Positivation means that if the carbon atom of carbonyl group is more deficient in electron density, it will have a more positive charge and more likely to be attacked by a nucleophile. Transmutation represents the connection of one carbon atom to two highly electronegative atoms or electron withdrawing groups, which can be regarded as potential carbonyl group. Tautomerization refers to the tautomerism of the carbonyl compound and its derivatives. Starting from the concept of “three changes”, specific examples and comprehensive exercises were provided to assist students to learn carbonyl compound more efficiently.

Blended Teaching Design and Practice Based on the Rain Classroom and BOPPPS Improved Model: Fine Synthesis Unit Reaction

LUAN Ji-Mei, FANG Long, JIANG Peng, SUN De-Shuai, ZHANG Xiao-Dong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 37-44. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022110084
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The reform and exploration of teaching mode for Fine Synthesis Unit Reaction course was carried out. Based on the rain classroom platform and BOPPPS improved model, the blended teaching mode was designed and practiced. Because of its emphasis on student-centered teaching mode and efficient interactions, the study initiatives and participations of students were improved. The whole teaching process included preview before class, study in class and review after class. The classroom teaching efficiency and the teaching effect was enhanced. The blended teaching mode was widely recognized by students.

Some Strategies in Writing Teaching Plan of “Polymer Physics”

HUO Hong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 45-48. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022110099
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Based on her own teaching experience, the author summarized several understandings in writing the teaching plan of polymer physics, which are: highlighting the teaching characteristics according to the course content; combing the overall content of the teaching plan and clarifying the teaching process by skillfully using the mind map; and writing both teaching objectives and educational objectives in the curriculum teaching plan, integrating ideological and political elements into teaching.
Experiment Teaching

Instructional Design and Practice of Comprehensive Experiment for Synthesis of Photosensitive Resins and 3D Printing

LIU Xing-Yu, SHEN Yong-Wen, WANG Bao-Yan, GUO Jin-Shan, HUI Xin-Ping
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 49-55. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100083
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According to the characteristics of the comprehensive experiment, combined with the characteristics of comprehensive, innovative and interesting, the photosensitive resin synthesis and 3D printing comprehensive experiments are designed. In this paper, UV-curable resins were firstly synthesized by the reaction of 1,6-hexadiisocyanate (HDI) trimer with hydroxyethyl acrylate in the active solvent of acrylmorpholine (ACMO). The reaction degree between HDI trimer and hydroxyethyl acrylate was analyzed by —NCO determination, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal analysis. Furthermore, the structure of the photocurable resin was characterized and the photocurable property was evaluated. The photosensitive resin with suitable viscosity was prepared by combining with other photocurable monomers and photoinitiators. The test splines and display samples were printed by a desktop 3D printer with 405 nm wavelength. In the performance test, these splines shows that they had good mechanical properties.This experiment was opened in the comprehensive teaching experiments of the fourth grade and won the praise of the students, it can enable undergraduate students to learn the preparation method of photocurable resin, and know the combination of chemical materials with digital model and 3D printing technology. It also can help students to understand the design relationship between polymer structure and performance, enhance their ability to analyze and process data, and expand their knowledge level of other disciplines.

Comprehensive Innovative Experiment:Preparation and Characterization of Flexible Packaging Zn-LiFePO4 Hybrid Battery

FENG Kai, ZHU Ya-Ru, JIAN Jin-Cheng, LIU Hong-Hao, LIU Shan-Shan, HAN Yan-Yang, CUI Wei, GUAN Ren-Gui, YANG Xin, HE Tao
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 56-63. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022080131
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A feasible experiment of preparing flexible packaging hybrid batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode material and Zn as anode material is designed. The saturated sucrose aqueous solution containing 1 mol/L Li2SO4+ZnSO4 is used as electrolyte. The stainless-steel mesh, non-woven membrane and self-sealing bag are also used. The batteries are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry curve, battery charge-discharge curve and LED lamp test. No organic solvents or toxic chemicals are required, nor is a severe drying laboratory or a glovebox. The experiment has strong operability and repeatability. The materials used are environmentally friendly, safe and cheap. This experimental design offers new routes to familiarize students with the construction and mechanism of lithium ion batteries. The real-world applications of electrochemistry are presented visually.

Teaching Exploration of the Innovative Talent Cultivation in Polymer Chemistry Experiment Promoted by Mind Mapping

WEN Xin, WANG Su-Juan, TIAN Yue-Lan, GU Fang
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 64-70. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023040044
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Polymer chemistry experiment includes the courses of basic polymer chemistry experiment, comprehensive polymer experiment, research and innovation experiment, and its teaching process is an important practical link to train innovative chemical talents. By using the hybrid teaching mode of online and offline, the mind mapping method is applied to the online student experiment preview, teachers’ classroom experiment teaching and students’ self-designed experiment, so as to explore a new way of experimental teaching to cultivate innovative talents. The results of teaching practice shows that the mind mapping can effectively help students master the experimental scheme, understand the complex reaction process, form critical spirit and innovative thinking, cultivate students’ practical ability and independent learning quality, and provide a new way for innovative talent cultivation.
Teacher Education

Construction and Practice of Education Practice Training System of Chemistry Normal Students Under the Background of Normal Professional Certification

JIANG Xue-Qing, SONG Wan-Ju, LI Yan-Ying
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 71-76. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023020092
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Based on the ideas of “student-centered, output-oriented and continuous improvement” of normal professional certification, and according to the problems existing in the education practice of chemistry normal students, with a focus on the graduation requirements of “one practice and three learning”, the education practice training system of chemistry normal students of “four years integration, the connection of educational probation, research and practice, and promoting learning through competition” has been constructed. They are “reading and speech” in grade one, “observation and writing” in grade two, “practice and reflection” in grade three, and “do and research” in grade four. It has continuously improved the educational practice ability and professional ethics cultivation of chemistry normal students. Carrying out multi-subjects and multi-forms educational practice teaching evaluation, strengthening process evaluation and performance evaluation, and in terms of teachers training, bases construction, collaborative education, institutional improvement, supervision and management, which has ensured smooth implementation and practical effectiveness of the education practice training system of chemistry normal students.

Reason for Non-Normal Students Choosing Major of Chemistry Education in Postgraduate: Qualitative Study Based on Multiple Cases

ZHANG Si-Si, YANG Ji-Dong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 77-84. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022120188
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In order to study the motivation of non-normal students to choose cross-examination chemistry education postgraduate students, the grounded theory of qualitative research was adopted. Based on the analysis of relevant in-depth interview data, a theoretical model of the motivation of non-normal university students to take the cross-examination is constructed. According to the study, under the influence of external environment (publicity report, influence of others, employment competition) and individual environment (experiment experience, practice experience, teaching experience), on the one hand, career resistance prompts non-normal university students to leave their original major; on the other hand, professional identity, self-recognition, professional needs prompt non-normal university students to cross the examination of chemical education majors. Then the non-normal university students cross-examination behavior. Using the theoretical model to analyze the case, the students can be divided into three categories: “internal force” driven, “external force” driven and “double” driven. In view of different types of cross-examination students, the cultivation of relevant groups is further discussed.

Mechanism and Path of Chemistry Teacher Education Course Construction from Perspective of Learning Trajectory: Course Construction of “Secondary School Chemistry Curriculum and Textbook Research”

HUANG Ming-Chun, WANG Wei-Zhen
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 85-92. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022070248
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From the theoretical perspective of learning trajectory and based on the orientation of curriculum competence enhancement, the five rounds of empirical improvement of the compulsory chemistry education master’s course “secondary chemistry curriculum and textbook research” in the College of Teacher Education in Capital Normal University are explored to reveal the mechanism and path of the construction of the compulsory chemistry teacher education course. The interaction between the three elements of learning objectives identification, learning task unpacking and design, and preservice teachers’ curriculum competence progression assumptions is the mechanism of the course construction. The path of course construction is: knowledge refinement → method acquisition → value confirmation → result realization → theory revelation.
Vocational Education

Effects and Mechanism of Achievement Goal Orientations on the Learning Engagement of Secondary Vocational Students

AN Rong, DU Wei
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 93-101. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022070252
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380 secondary vocational students were investigated to explore the effect of achievement goal orientations on learning engagement,as well as the chain mediating effect of time management disposition and academic procrastination. The measurement included achievement goal vector scale, adolescent time management disposition scale, middle school student academic procrastination questionnaire and Chinese version of the learning engagement questionnaire. The results showed that: (1) Mastery-approach goal directly and positively predicted the learning engagement of secondary vocational students. (2) Time management disposition and academic procrastination respectively played significant mediating roles between mastery-approach goal and learning engagement. (3) Time management disposition played a completely mediating role between mastery-avoidance goal, performance-approach goal, performance-avoidance goal and learning engagement. (4) Academic procrastination played a completely mediating role between performance-approach goal, performance-avoidance goal and learning engagement. (5) Mastery-approach goal, mastery-avoidance goal, performance-approach goal and performance-avoidance goal all indirectly predict the learning engagement of secondary vocational students through the chain mediating of time management disposition and academic procrastination.
Chemical Education for Non-Chemistry Majors

Multi-Dimensional and Efficient Teaching Strategies for Organic Chemistry: Synthesis and Application of Pheromone of Monochamus Alternatus

CHEN Wei-Yi, LI Min, YU Hong, HAO De-Jun
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 102-107. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022090181
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Based on the needs of improvement of teaching for non-chemistry majors, this paper explores the multi-dimensional and efficient teaching strategies of organic chemistry. Meanwhile, the knowledge of biology and the social concept of green development were introduced into the organic chemistry teaching, and the students’ desire and interests in learning organic chemistry were improved. By the aid of modern information technology, online and offline teaching modes were applied in teaching; and then the design of precise teaching objectives, the implementation of precise classroom teaching, organic synthesis experiments and field trapping could be combined organically. Facts have proved that all of the teaching strategies applied here are helpful to improve teaching quality and teaching effect.

Application of Question Chain Teaching Method in Medical Organic Chemistry: Amino Acids and Peptides

HE Wei, WANG Hai-Bo, LI Ming-Hua, QIN Xiang-Yang, JI Nan
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 108-112. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100214
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Question chain teaching method refers to a new teaching method in which teachers design a series of logical problems in the teaching process, with the main line of cultivating students thinking ability and knowledge internalization, and the basic operating mode is cooperation and interaction between the teachers and students. In medical organic chemistry, we adopt the question chain teaching method, which was guided by enlightening problems and paid attention to the formation of logical chains between the problems. By leading students to answer questions, we sorted out the basic concepts, summarized the key and difficult points, and made progress step by step, so as to achieve twice the result with half the effort. In this paper, we take the teaching design and practice of amino acids and peptides as an example to introduce the application of question chain teaching method in medical organic chemistry teaching.
Information Technology and Chemistry

Design and Application of the Precipitation Titration Learning Software Based on Python

WANG Shun, LI Wei, ZHAO Shi-Ju, LIU Xiao-Hua, WU Lu-Lu, XIE Li-Xia, SONG Mei-Rong, LI Hui
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 113-119. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023040058
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In the process of teaching titration analysis, a precipitation titration learning software is designed and developed using Python language in order to promote the deep integration of modern information technology and teaching. The software does not need to install and establish complex functions or calculation equations. It is easy to operate for users only by selecting and inputting the corresponding parameters, which can make the precipitation titration curve visualization. In addition, the software can automatically calculate the stoichiometric points, the jumping range, the feasibility of the titration and the titration error. This software is presented in the form of a graphical interface with simple design, convenient operation and rich content. Users can choose built-in or customized titration examples. This software almost contains the important knowledge of the precipitation titration method in the syllabus, which is convenient for teachers to prepare lessons for teaching and students to study independently, cooperating to improve the teaching effect.
Discussion and Thinking of Questions

Effectiveness and Limitations of Turnover Number and Turnover Frequency

ZHANG Heng
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 120-123. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100205
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Turnover number (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) are the two concepts that can be encountered in the research of catalysis. It is normally accepted that TON is the number of reactant molecules that can be transformed per active site and TOF is the ratio of TON and the time to accomplish these transformations. TON and TOF can be used to evaluate the stability and activity of catalyst. In this paper, the TON and TOF in the homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme catalysis have been discussed and the related metrics, such as S/C, the molar percent of catalyst, TTN(total turnover number) and STY(site time yield) are also explained.
Domestic and Overseas Trends

Research on Utilize Stance Markers of Chemistry Scholars at Home and Abroad

YANG Chuan-Ming, LENG Li-Tian
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2023, 44 (18): 124-129. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022110212
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Stance markers are the language resources for the author to express personal views and attitudes, and they play a crucial role in the construction of academic discourse and interpersonal communication. However, there is also a gap for research stance markers in the abstracts of chemistry papers. Hence, this research presents a corpus-based contrastive analysis of stance markers in English abstracts of research articles from SCI chemistry journals. Research shows that the overall frequency is lower than foreign scholars. Foreign authors use more attitude markers and self-mentions than domestic ones. However, domestic authors often use hedges to convey academic works; there is no significant difference between the two in boosters. Based on the research results, this research aims to raise the awareness of domestic chemistry scholars in using stance markers in academic writing and to provide some pedagogical implications for chemistry ESP teachers.
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