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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education  
  Chinese Journal of Chemical Education--2024, 45 (3)   Published: 02 February 2024
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 0-0.
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 1-2. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100184
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 31-34. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023100158
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 81-83. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023020067
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 96-96. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023080186
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 129-129. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023080141
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Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 71-71.
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Curriculum-Teaching Materials-Assessment

Evaluation of Scientific Communication Ability of Senior High School Students Based on Chemistry Experiment Posters

YAO Quan, DENG Yang
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 3-9. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100111
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In order to explore the way to develop the scientific communication ability of high school students, taking high school chemistry experiment lessons as the experiment object, and taking chemistry experiment poster as the integrated tool of “teaching, learning and evaluation”, this study creatively designed a chemistry experiment lesson with experiment posters exchanged and provided the evaluation framework of a chemistry experiment poster. Through four rounds of complete implementation of the curriculum and evaluation, it is found that the scientific communication ability of high school students based on chemical experiment posters generally presents a high level. The poster works of chemical experiment show good standardization and artistry, but the integrity and scientificity of the works still need to be improved.

Learning Progressions of Understanding Big Ideas of “Matter” for Students in Compulsory Education

LI Xiao-Feng, LIANG Shan-Shan, ZHENG Chang-Long
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 10-18. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022060101
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Based on the study of science curricula standards of nine countries or regions, the research built the theory presupposed model and tool test model of the learning progressions of understanding the big ideas of “matter” for students in compulsory education, and developing 29 test items to validate the two models. For the purpose of the reliability validation, the Cronbach coefficient was tested by SPSS 24.0 software, and the separation, the reliability of item and person, measure, model S.E, Infit/Outfit (MNSQ & ZSTD) and so on were validated by Winsteps 3.72.0 software. Students from 8 provinces distributed in 15 schools, including urban schools and rural ones responded to this test. Through testing twice, the five levels of learning progressions of understanding the big ideas of “matter” for students in compulsory education were finally formed. In general, the students’ understanding level of the big ideas of “matter” ascended with progressive increase in grade. However, there were three key stages: grade 4, grade 7-8 and grade 9, on which students understanding the big ideas of “matter” made a qualitative leap. Students’ level of understanding the big ideas of “matter” had been experienced a change from physical properties and changes to chemical properties and changes. It was found that students’ understanding level of the big ideas of “matter” did not increase absolutely according to the grade stages, and there was a certain degree of fluctuation.

Comparison of the Difficulty of “Electrochemical Cell” in High School Chemistry Textbooks Among China, Britain and the United States

Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 19-24. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022120118
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Based on the difficulty evaluation model of “two dimensions and four indicators” established by Yan Chungeng, the current high school textbooks of China, Britain and the United States were selected as the research objects to evaluate and compare the difficulty of the “electrochemical cell” content. The study found that at the level of teaching material organization, the English textbook had the least difficulty, the Chinese version was more difficult; at the level of content representation, the Chinese version had the least difficulty, the English version was the most difficult. And this paper puts forward suggestions to strengthen multiple characterization, infiltrates the related concepts of “electric potential”, so as to provide reference for the compilation of China’s teaching materials and classroom teaching.

Analysis of Chemistry Test Papers for Senior High School Entrance Examination Based on Analytical Framework

SUN Jia-Lin, YAN Xiu-Mei, WANG Xiao-Fei, QIAN Sheng
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 25-30. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022120088
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Based on the existing research, the analytical framework of the chemistry test paper for the senior high school entrance examination was constructed. The text analysis method was used to analyze the examination papers of six provinces and cities in 2022. It was found that: multiple-choice questions accounted for a relatively high proportion of test question types, the properties and application theme of matter occupied a relatively high proportion in the content of the test questions, the standardization of the test paper was good, the test papers of some provinces and cities did not have a significant consistency with the academic quality requirements of the curriculum standards, the test questions embodied the “three combinations”, some test questions also reflected the development. According to the analysis results, some suggestions were put forward: scientifically and rationally planed the structure of the test questions to avoid the situation that the proportion of a certain question type was too high and the proportion of a certain subject was high; appropriate attention should be paid to the examination of high-level cognitive levels to improve the consistency with the curriculum standards; the test tasks focused on practical problem solving, and comprehensively considered the unfamiliarity of the situation, the openness of inquiry, and the complexity of problem solving.
Excellent Lesson

Unit Teaching of “Aldehydes, Ketones and Glucose” Based on Understanding of Chemistry Discipline

WANG Ling, GUO Xiao-Qin, XING Dong-Yang, ZENG Zhong-Xian, WU Qian, MO Jie-Li
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 35-42. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100193
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The analysis of the structure is the key to recognizing the properties of the organic compounds. Taking the carbonyl group:polar multiple bonds as the object of knowledge, based on the understanding of the chemistry principle, this paper presents the deep teaching about properties of ketone carbonyl groups, aldehyde groups and polyhydroxy aldehydes from perspectives of the hybridization form of central atom, the electronegativity of bonding and the polarity of the covalent bond in the unit teaching of aldehydes, ketones and glucose. The teaching process can help students achieve the progression of cognition from simple function group to multiple functional group and the interactions between multiple functional groups, and promotes the development of the students’ academic literacy and core competencies.

High School Chemistry Project Teaching Based on Subject Integration: Development and Use of COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing Kit

HE Yi, ZHANG Che, LI Ran, LIN Hong-Yan, WEI Rui, CHEN Ying, TANG Long-Chang
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 43-51. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022110076
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Nucleic acid is the content of “organic chemistry basis” for chemistry selective compulsory course in high school. This project adopts “project teaching”, combined with the nucleic acid detection technique in real life. The project is divided into three tasks: “Identifying the nucleic acid of the SARS-COV-2” “Increasing the concentration of SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid” and “Optimizing and using the SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid detection kit”, as an example of situational and interdisciplinary teaching. In this project, students are guided to use chemical knowledge and cognitive models to solve hot social problems, and to understand that the solution of many problems in life science requires chemical knowledge, especially material structure.

Project-Based Teaching of “Corrosion and Protection of Metals”: A Life Tip to Make Silver Shine Like New

HOU Wen-Qun
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 52-59. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022110164
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With “silver corrosion and silver restoration” as the project learning theme and real life situation as the carrier, the whole project learning content includes: chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion, factors affecting the size of the electromotive force of the primary battery, cathodic protection method of sacrificial anode, cathodic protection method of impressed current. Through a variety of experimental activities such as family small experiment, student group inquiry experiment, teacher demonstration experiment, etc., the teaching design idea and teaching practice process of “project-based learning to develop metal corrosion and protection” are presented.

Chemistry Problem-Oriented Teaching Based on Real Situation in Junior High School: Exploration of H2O2’s Decomposition and Catalyst’s Function

FAN Wan-Zhen, HOU Xiao-Bei, ZHANG Hui-Min
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 60-65. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100010
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Core literacy of students’ development are mentioned in the Chemistry Curriculum Standard for Compulsory Education (2022 Edition)”, advocating that students are guided to solve interdisciplinary problems in real situations and cope with the uncertain challenges in the future. The teaching of H2O2’s decomposition always lacks of appropriate real situation, maneuverable experiments, comprehensively demonstration of knowledge, and the development of students’ quantitative thinking. Accordingly, the treatment of tumor hypoxia is taken as the teaching situation, which is run through by problem orientation, generated by innovative experiment, serviced by intelligent tablet, promoted by driven task, so that students can experience the whole process of scientific research, and effectively complete the teaching of H2O2’s decomposition and catalyst’s function.

Introduction Class of Junior High School Chemistry:What Chemistry Brings to Us

ZHAN Fa-Yun, CHEN Guang-Yu
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 66-71. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100175
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Taking “what chemistry brings to us” as a teaching case, the initial chemical lesson of grade 9 tries practicing the “paradigm and guidance teaching” with the application of the authentic situation, developmental tasks, diversified meaning negotiation and creative application and other basic elements. This research tries to let students learn the magical and interesting chemistry during the first experience of material appreciation and experimental operation; let students learn practical and surrounding chemistry during the perception of the phenomenon of chemical life and the second inspiration of application in industrial and agricultural production; let students learn creative and developmental chemistry during the retrospect of the history of chemistry development and the further understanding of social development and technological progress.

Interdisciplinary Practice Chemistry Teaching of Junior High School Based on the Idea of Energy:I am Rocket Propellant Designer

HUANG Zhen, LI Ran, LIU Bin, YAN Ru-Yue, ZHAO Chen, LIN Hong-Yan, YANG Yan, ZHENG Yue
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 72-80. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022110081
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This study takes “I am rocket propellant designer” as the theme and “how to make rockets fly” as the driving problem. Under the command of the big idea of “energy”, the interdisciplinary practice is carried out. Through the three core activities of “exploring the mystery of rocket launch, the selection and utilization of rocket propellant, and the understanding and selection of hydrogen energy”, the cognitive model of “understanding chemical changes from the perspectives of material change, energy change, reaction conditions, reaction phenomena, reaction types and conservation of elements” is constructed. And the simple interdisciplinary problems are discussed from the perspective of chemistry to understand the importance of rational utilization of substances and regulation of chemical reactions.
Teaching Research

Teaching Design Based on Big Ideas and Subject Understanding: Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials

HU Lin-Tao, ZHAO Lei-Hong, ZHU Li-Ying, WANG Jing, DAI Wei
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 84-90. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022090034
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Teaching content of the “inorganic non-metallic materials” in high school chemistry is relatively insignificant, and the popular science teaching is disadvantage for students to construct big ideas. Therefore, it’s of great significance to reconstruct the teaching design, which is based on subject understanding theory. Perspectives and cognitive thinking were extracted from the requirement of curriculum standard in this research, the functions of theme competencies extracted from the silicate structure and the utilization history of silicon, and targeted teaching design was provided based on the theme big ideas. The design ideas and content highlight the perspectives of structures and elements, and the design purpose points to the students’ development of scientific attitude and social responsibility competency, and give play to the educational function of chemistry subject.

Analysis and Inspiration of Project-Based Learning Cases in the “Carbon Time” of the United States

HU Jiu-Hua, SUI Xin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 91-95. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023080080
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Project-based learning originates in the United States and has been widely studied and practiced globally, and has been proved for significantly promoting the development of students’ core competencies. This study selects a project-based learning case called “Carbon Time” in the United States for analysis, and identifies its characteristics: the cross-age and interdisciplinary objectives are designed based on NGSS, the scientific explanation of driving questions points to specific phenomena, project activities are designed according to scientific exploration models and provides scaffolds for students, and the model iteration bases on reflective activities process,pre and post testing with research ideas and methods as the main testing objectives. On this basis, the inspiration for project-based learning in China is proposed: naturally integrating multidisciplinary knowledge with the need for real problem solving, using more concrete driving problems, appropriately increasing project activities time and project duration, using more scaffolds in teaching under the control of big ideas, adding more students’ self-reflection and evaluation activities, providing similar types of problems to consolidate ideas for solving problems, etc.
Investigation Report

Investigation on Penetration of Career Education in Senior High School Chemistry Teaching

WU Han-Qing, BAI Yue
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 97-105. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100150
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Under the background of the new college entrance examination, the value of career education is further highlighted. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate 2 457 senior high school students in a municipality. The basic information involved three aspects: students, schools and families. The results show that (1) Male students, urban students, model schools and those with better family conditions have more social occupational cognition, while female students, only children, urban students, model schools and those with better family conditions have more occupational tendency. (2) Most students think it is necessary to integrate career education into chemistry. Less than one third of chemistry teachers have carried out certain career education, especially the lack of comprehensive practice activities. (3) More introverted, low academic level, senior two students, rural students, ordinary schools, parents with low educational background and those with weak family conditions, especially need to strengthen career education. Based on this, we should combine the curriculum standard to integrate career education into subject to carry on the systematic overall design. We should combine gender, grade, school, family, region and other factors to improve the effectiveness of career education. It is necessary to integrate discipline teaching and comprehensive practice activities to integrate into career education.
Experiment Teaching and Teaching Aid Development

Integrated Green Design of Chlorine Gas Properties Experiment

HONG Yan-Ru, LI Jun-Jue, CAI Kai-Cong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 106-108. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023020095
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Based on textbooks and literature researching, innovative experiments on chlorine preparation and properties of bleaching, acidity, oxidation, and exhaust gas absorption were proposed. This protocol solves the problems of large amount of chlorine usage, easy leakage, inconvenient operation, and experimental time-consuming during teaching textbook experiments. The improved experimental device not only can be easier to operate, with controllable rate, obvious phenomenon, and has little environmental pollution, thus presents the spirit of green environmental protection.

Exploration of Concentration Threshold Value of Nitric Acid Oxidation Change by Handheld Technology

WANG Guo-Liang, LIAO Zhi-Gang, XIAO Ding-Song, LIU Kai-Xin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 109-113. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023040074
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Nitric acid is an important substance that helps students understand strong oxidizing properties, and the concentration of its solution is an important measure to distinguish the strength of oxidizing properties. Using conductivity sensors and oxygen sensors, this paper explored the concentration threshold of nitric acid oxidation change. The analysis and interpretation of the reaction mechanism, molecular structure and electrochemistry were presented. The aim was to help students to grasp the oxidative change of nitric acid more visually, accurately and deeply, and to help establish a strong oxidative cognitive model structure from a quantitative perspective.
Discussion and Thinking of Questions

Disciplinary Analysis of “Chemical Power Source”

HUANG Mei-Rong, SUN Wen-Dong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 114-117. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2023010102
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Based on the section “chemical power source” in the textbook Principles of Chemical Reactions, this paper explains why numerous spontaneous chemical reactions cannot be made into practical chemical power sources from the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics. Comparing the electrode potential of zinc-manganese battery with the oxidation and reduction electrode potential of solvent water in alkaline solution, it is concluded that the positive electrode MnO2 of the battery is thermodynamically stable and the negative electrode Zn is kinetically stable, because H2 is difficult to precipitate on Zn. Both electrodes of lead-acid storage battery are kinetically stable, oxygen evolution on positive electrode PbO2 is difficult while hydrogen evolution on negative electrode Pb is difficult.

Combination of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Understand Nature of Reaction: Analysis of Chemical Process Flow Questions by Equilibrium Constants

SHI Wen-Jie, LI Ran, GUO Yu-Lin
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 118-122. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022120136
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To understand the nature of reaction from a qualitative and quantitative perspective, the paper analyzes the 18th question of 2022 Beijing chemistry academic level examination. It aims to help students build balance problem analysis ideas and methods based on the equilibrium constant. And then their awareness and ability can be improved to solve chemical problems using disciplinary thinking methods. According to the industrial production method of “high utilization and low emissions”, this paper analyzes the selection of reagents and helps students experience the creativity and practice of engineers.
History of Chemistry and Chemical History Education

From ND3 to 15NH3: Discovery of Ammonia and Historical Evolution of Its Triple Representation

WU Lin-Xiu, YUAN Zhen-Dong
Chinese Journal of Chemical Education. 2024, 45 (3): 123-128. ;  doi: 10.13884/j.1003-3807hxjy.2022100189
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Through the analysis of the development process of the concept of ammonia, it is the first alkaline gas discovered by people. In the 18th century, Priestley collected ammonia through mercury discharge and gas gathering method, Berthollet revealed that ammonia was a hydronitrogen, formed the concept of macroscopic representation of ammonia. In the 19th century, the establishment of atom-molecule theory made ammonia form the concept of microscopic representation and symbolic representation at the atomic and molecular levels; In the 20th century, the development of material structure theory had made the microscopic characterization of ammonia more in-depth and the symbolic characterization more perfect. In the 1930s, the discovery and application of ND3 and 15NH3 led to a new understanding of the concept of ammonia.The discovery of ammonia and the historical evolution of its triple representation are not only the process of the formation and development of the concept of ammonia, but also the process of the development of scientific methods and thoughts.
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